Nutritional factors influencing the development of iron deficiencies during the first year of life
Objective. To analyse the effects of the specificities of feeding on the dynamics of iron deficiencies in infants during their first year of life.
Patients and methods. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study of specific features of feeding infants up to 12 months. Iron deficiency was diagnosed by a 2-step assessment of laboratory parameters (at 6 and 12 months). Infant nutrition was analysed by a questionnaire survey method. Control groups were singled out according to the dynamics of hematological parameters: group А – had a positive dynamics (61 infants), group B – dynamics was absent (28 infants), group C had a negative dynamics and persistent iron-deficiency anaemia (98 infants).
Results. We have found a significant relation between breastfeeding for 12 months and a negative dynamics of iron stores and red blood cell parameters: χ2 = 19.3, р < 0.01. 26.2% of infants of group А, 64.3% of group B and 59.2% of group C (р < 0.001) were breastfed for 12 months. Supplementary foods were introduced after 6 months in 6.6% of infants of group А and in 14.3% – of group C. A later introduction of cereals was noted in infants of group C as compared with group A (р = 0.039) and group B (р = 0.022). A faster introduction of supplementary foods (more than three kinds per month) was characteristic for infants of group C: 15.3% as compared with 9.84% in group A. The terms of introduction of five and more products were violated in 47.54% of infants of group A, in 42.9% of group B and in 51.0% of group C.
Conclusion. Infants who are breastfed after 6 months of age belong to a risk group of the development of iron deficiency, and late introduction of cereals becomes the main risk factor by 12 months of life.
Key words: first-year infants, feeding, anaemia, iron-deficiency conditions.
For citation: Mazur L.I., Sazonova O.V., Balashova E.A., Gavryushin M.Yu. Nutritional factors influencing the development of iron deficiencies during the first year of life. Vopr. det. dietol. (Pediatric Nutrition). 2019; 17(5): 5–11. (In Russian).