Pediatric Nutrition

Approaches to development of diet therapy in treatment of arterial hypertension in adolescents

The objective. To study actual nutrition of children with arterial hypertension (AH) as compared to children with normotension.

Patients and methods. Actual nutrition in domestic settings was studied in 50 children aged 11–16 years with AH and 50 normotensive children of the same age. An evaluation of actual nutrition was performed by questionnaire-interview method using frequency analysis.

Results. In the majority of children of the both studied groups, a disordered physiological rhythm of nutrition was found with the predominant intake of meals in the evening hours. Children with AH significantly more often than normotensive children consumed: meat dishes 0.88 vs. 0.77 (p < 0.05), sausages and cooked meats 0.7 vs.0.56 (p < 0.05), roasted food 0.52 vs.0.44 and confectionery 0.71 vs.0.4 (p < 0.05); these children also more often added salt to prepared foods (by 3.5 times, p < 0.05), and more rarely (by 2 times) consumed fish (0.24/0.39, p < 0.05). The obtained evidence was used in development of the basic principles of diet therapy for AH in 11–16-year-old children, which include: restriction of intake of saturated fats (SF) with an increased quota of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); optimization
of the ω-3 : ω-6 PUFA ratio; limitation of sodium intake in the ration according to age-related physiological needs associated with optimization of the sodium : potassium ratio.

Conclusion. The results of the study are indicative of considerable deviations from the principles of healthy nutrition in children with AH.

Key words: arterial hypertension, 11-16-year-old children, diet, fats, salt, actual nutrition

DOI: 10.20953/1727-5784-2013-1-58-62