Clinical Practice in Pediatrics

Role of constitutional factors in the development of underweight and overweight in adolescents

Objective. Тo analyze the frequency of various body weight disorders in adolescents with leptosomic, mesosomic, and hypersomic constitutional types.
Patients and methods. This study included 537 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (270 males and 267 females). We determined their somatotype using the method developed by I.I. Salivon and V.A. Melnik and calculated body mass index (BMI) to evaluate the proportion of adolescents who were severely underweight, moderately underweight, had normal weight, were overweight, or obese among participants with different constitutional types.
Results. Approximately 50% of boys and 24% of girls with leptosomic somatotype as well as 4% of boys and 3% of girls with mesosomic somatotype were underweight. Overweight and obesity were more typical of boys (84%) and girls (100%) with hypersomic constitutional type. A total of 4% of boys and 16% of girls with mesosomic somatotype and 2% of girls with leptosomic somatotype were overweight or obese. We also observed constitutional differences in the anthropometric parameters measured. Participants with leptosomic somatotype had significantly lower body weight, chest parameters, skin fat thickness at different sites, and size of the bones compared to those with hypersomic and mesosomic constitutional types. The body length and chest width (in girls) were similar in all groups.
Conclusion. Our results can be useful for the development of individual recommendations for the management of children with metabolic disorders, since the correction of underweight and overweight should be performed before puberty.
Key words: body mass index, constitutional factors, underweight, obesity, adolescents, somatotypes.

For citation: Erkudov V.O., Skripchenko N.V., Zaslavskiy D.V., Pugovkin A.P., Volkov A.Ya., Musaeva O.I., Bagaturiya G.O., Kulbah O.S. Role of constitutional factors in the development of underweight and overweight in adolescents. Vopr. prakt. pediatr. (Clinical Practice in Pediatrics). 2019; 14(4):21–29. (In Russian).

DOI: 10.20953/1817-7646-2019-4-21-29